What does it mean for a team to be truly self-organised?

I love the way Claudette Moore sums up what a self-organised team is all about:

Self Organised is the capacity you have as a team to arrange yourself in such a way that you can effectively and happily complete tasks that you have committed to within the constraints that a company puts on you. – Claudette Moore

Self-OrganisedIn my opinion, a typical self-organised team needs the time and support to mature. It is not an easy process, and can’t be forced. During the process there will be laughter and tears, conflict and collaboration. This is all worth it in the end, as without going through this process, all you have is a framework. Ultimately, to become a high performance team, this path needs to be followed. The results however, are well worth it – a team that is highly collaborative, cross skilled, able to solve complex problems, remove their own impediments, delivering high value outcomes, focused and driven to achieve results and true value.

In my opinion, for a team to become self-organised, they need the following:


  • Framing / Boundaries in which they can work. It’s important to include managers in this process so that the managers understand that a self-organised team does not make them redundant.
  • Trust among each other and the Scrum Master.
  • Goals and a vision not only for the product they are delivering, but for each sprint as well.
  • Measurement – you need to know where you are in order to see if you are improving. Be careful with this one, using the wrong metrics can destroy a team.
  • Encouragement to fail early to maximise learning. This behaviour should be supported by the business and not punished.
  • Support and direction by business and Scrum Master so that they are encouraged to solve their own problems and not dictated solutions.
  • Autonomy to decide not only how but who.

Team Maturity

From my perspective, a new team will go through four levels of maturity. It is important to understand at what level the team is, in order to guide appropriately.

I use the analogy of growing up from infancy to adulthood to describe these four levels:

  1. Infancy
    • New to Agile / Scrum.Infant
    • Haven’t actually adopted scrum in a working environment yet
    • In a dream like state after been sold all the pros of Agile and in theory it sounds wonderful and easy and their lives will be trouble free.
    • The trainers are like the parents, teaching their new borns and the new borns just accept everything they are fed.
  2. Toddlerbillionphotos-1879199_small500
    • Might still need to be micromanaged, require work to be
      allocated, decisions to be made for them.
    • Not willing or have the courage to challenge peers or managers. Happy to still just do as they are told.
    • Blaming external forces for non delivery and not finding ways to improve as a team (specifically retro’s).
    • Focusing on personal delivery and not the delivery of the team.
    • Don’t own or take responsibility for delivery.
    • Think being busy working on a bunch of stuff, means they are working hard.
    • Not focused on priority, but still influenced by who shouts the loudest.
    • Not very disciplined.
    • Still not able to see the real value of Scrum, no real adoption yet.
    • Level of re-work might still be high.
  3. AdolescenceAdolescence
    • Able to organise as a team, most of the time, in terms of making decisions on how the work will be completed.
    • Start to realise that starting too many things and not finishing, isn’t the best way to work.
    • Still focused on individual performance. Collaboration level still not great.
    • Start to challenge the process and Product Owner.
    • Start to reflect internally and not just externally.
    • Starting to focus on value based priority.
    • Able to deal with minor obstacles and start to solve their own problems without waiting for guidance.
    • Taking more responsibility, but will still look at someone or something else to blame.
    • Level of discipline is improving.
    • Starting to see the value of Scrum but adoption is shallow.
  4. AdultAdult
    • Honest with each other, challenge each other, trust each other.
    • Able to reflect internally and find opportunities for improvements as a team and the way they work together.
    • Solve own problems.
    • Work as a team, level of collaboration high, and focus on finishing important work first.
    • Level of discipline high.
    • Able to challenge the business and are focused on delivering value for the customer.
    • Focused on quality and not quantity.
    • Understand the value and adopted Agile technical practices like continuos integration, BDD (Behavioural Driver Development) , TDD (Test Driven Development),  Automated testing etc.
    • Agile adoption is much deeper.

So as I said, the way a Scrum Master would interact and help a team develop, all depends on which level they are.

What can you do as a Scrum Master to influence self-organisation?

  • Identify at what stage the team is at and act accordingly. Let the team develop at their own pace.
  • Model behaviour expected from the team and by leaders.
  • Coach managers to become leaders.
  • Make sure the team understands their boundaries.
  • Have values and principles that you and the team stand by.
  • Focus on the core principles of Agile and ensure that the actions of the team supports these principles.
  • Keep things simple, always review what you and the team are doing. Keep looking back at the basics.
  • Encourage the team to try.
  • Ask powerful questions that make the team think rather than offer solutions e.g.
    • Is there another way?
    • Can you explain that to me?
    • How can we test that?
    • How can you help in the delivery of the Sprint?
  • Support the team and their decisions and protect them from the business or anything that attempts to derail them.
  • Coach the Product Owner and ensure they understand their boundaries.
  • Coach the business in terms of what Agile means, and what a self-organised team means.

I hope you are able to find some value in this and I welcome any feedback or questions.

End of the year team retrospective – The Celebration Jar

End of the year team retrospectiveAs a parent, I subscribe to creative parenting newsletter by Nikki Bush. This month the newsletter was entitled “The Celebration Jar”, which is about acknowledging all the good that has happened and not focusing on the bad. To quote Nikki:



Life is unpredictable and full of ups and downs but having an attitude of gratitude enables families to move forward into the future positively and with purpose because you are open to learning from life’s experiences and celebrating what it means to be human.

Nikki explains an exerciser that you can try as a family, which after reading, I thought with a few minor changes, what an awesome exercise to run as an end of the year retrospective. Actually, this exercise could be run at anytime really.

End of Year Retrospective Exercise – The Celebration Jar:

What you will need:

  • A large empty glass jarcolorful-messages-glass-jar
  • Coloured card. Best if each person has their own colour so that they can identify their own squares. You could use stickies, but they may end up sticking to the inside of the jar
  • Khoki pens / Markers

Get each person to write one or all of the following, one per square:

  • Something that they have learned
  • Something positive that has happened to them
  • Someone they appreciate or are grateful for
  • Something worth celebrating

Feel free to adapt this list to suite you and or your teams needs / desires.

Fold the squares up and put them in the jar. Each person has a turn  to take one of their squares out. That person then shares what is on the card. If you have a lot of squares, or you could decide to just keep a few squares in the jar, and then every morning at the stand up, each person could share what’s on one of their cards.


How annual reviews create measurement dysfunctions in our companies

25024790-3d-person-watching-a-word-review-with-a-magnifying-glassTo illustrate why annual reviews (more commonly called performance appraisals) create measurement dysfunctions within our companies, I will start with a short explanation of two types of measures that we use in our companies: motivational measures and informational measures (“Measuring and Managing Performance in Organisations” by Robert D. Austin).

The first type of measure has the objective of directly effecting the people that are measured. The aim of this measure is to provoke greater effort from or involvement of the person in pursuit of organisational goals. Typical examples of motivational measurements are sales quotas, pay-for-performance metrics, merit pay metrics, etc.

It is not uncommon that managers feel the need to have influence over the employee or the group of employees; in other words, the manager has the need for control over the employee. The motivational measurements and a connection to the typical incentive plans are a response to this need for control. Having performance attached to incentive plans is a great way for managers to gain control completely over the employee. This control forces the employee to work harder and to do whatever the manager desires

“Measuring and Managing Performance in Organizations” by Robert D. Austin.

The second type of measure is the information measure, and it is used for generating insights into organisational processes, allowing better short-term management and long-term improvement of company processes. Usually this kind of information shows how various processes work, how long tasks take, etc. This kind of measurement does not have an objective to serve as a motivator for workers. It has the purpose of learning or studying whatever is being managed or studied in the company.

The difference between these two categories is quite important. Motivational measurements are used to provoke reactions in the people being measured. Informational measurements have exactly the contrary intention: people’s actions should not be affected at all by the information measurement.

Unfortunately, reality is different; our companies are filled with people who realise that information measures are in fact quite often transformed into motivational measures. People have an intrinsic desire to look good in front of the ones who are responsible for their evaluations, and as an outcome, people will change measures to look good and the information measured will not be representative of what’s going on in the company (Roesthlisberger and Dickson, 1939); therefore, dysfunction will occur.

Dysfunction occurs when the validity of information delivered by a system of measurement is compromised by the unintended reactions of those being measured. Robert D. Austin

To make it all even more complex, there is no way to define a measure as motivational or informational. The way in which the information is used defines what information type it belongs to. Robert D. Austin, in his book, gives us quite a good example of this. When we use measures of progress in software projects to simply visualise the progress of the report, this can be seen as an information measure. When the same information is used to reward or punish the teams involved in the project, the information immediately becomes motivational information.

This type of information can be used either motivationally or informationally. Unfortunately, the designers of the original measure are usually powerless to guarantee that the measurement information will be used as they initially planned. If the trust between colleagues and managers is not higher than average within the company, people will believe they are being measured, therefore a change in their behaviour will occur. People will start to cheat the numbers to protect themselves.

Unless companies create environments where measures are not made to evaluate people, dysfunction seems the only possible outcome within the companies.

The more any quantitative social indicator is used for social decision-making, the more subject it will be to corruption pressures and the more apt it will be to distort and corrupt the social processes it is intended to monitor.”  Donald Campbell

This blog post is part of my new book that you can find here.  You can get the first part of the book, just subscribe the mailing list.

Blog post written by Luis Goncalves

If you want to know more about Luis Goncalves please visit: lmsgoncalves.com

The importance of having an outcome in mind

Luis Gonçalves asked me if I wouldn’t mind writing an article for his blog.  This was the perfect opportunity for me to share something thats been on my mind for a while.  As Lewis Carroll so eloquently explains how important having an outcome is. Without an outcome in mind, any direction will do.

“Alice came to a fork in the road. ‘Which road do I take?’ she asked.Alice in Wonderland - Any Road Will Do
‘Where do you want to go?’ responded the Cheshire Cat.
‘I don’t know,’ Alice answered.
‘Then,’ said the Cat, ‘it doesn’t matter. If you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there.”

This is often the case. Do our meetings have define outcomes, one or one, or groups of people. You can read the rest of the article on Luis Gonçalves blog

Vision : Making a good team GREAT – BASSA 2014


Angie Doyle and myself will be running a  half day workshop at BASSA 2014 (Business Analysis Summit Southern Africa). The topic for our workshop is “Vision : Making a good team GREAT”.

About the workshop:

“Teamwork is the ability to work together towards a common vision. The ability to direct individual accomplishments towards organisational objectives. It is the fuel that allows common people to attain uncommon results.”

– Andrew Carnegie

Research has proven that a key ingredient of any successful team is a shared vision. When each team member knows that they are doing something of value and that their individual contribution is essential for the success of the team, they are more committed to the result. Join us for an interactive session where you will learn how to create and communicate a company, product or project vision using the following tools and techniques (and more): – Elevator Statement: communicate the vision in less than 30 seconds (the average time span of an elevator ride) – Product Vision Board : Validate your ideas and assumptions about the target group, user needs, key product features and value the product should deliver – Vision Box: If your product or initiative were marketed in a box, what would it look like? These tools and techniques are suitable for teams in both an Agile and Waterfall environment and will encourage participation from even the most challenging stakeholder!

The main takeways from the workshop:

  • Get practical hands-on experience using all of the above techniques
  • Discover the OMG (Object Management Group) Business Motivation Model and learn the difference between “Mission” and “Vision” and how “Courses of Action” help to attain “Desired Results”
  • Defining the business need and vision is a key task of the BABOK Enterprise Analysis knowledge area and a critical part of any business analysis effort. Use these techniques as an alternative to the options available in the BABOK.

For mo information or to register for the event, please visit bassa2014


Organisation and Team value conflicts – Align for Success

Values are very personal, but more than that, our true, core values are not that easy to identify. If you ask someone what their values are, nine times out of ten, they will rattle off a list of values that they believe are important to them. It maybe that these values are important to them or at least they believe they are, but are they their core values though. Values are what drive us and determine what we are willing to invest energy in or avoid.


In order to uncover a person’s real values, a process needs to be followed, which would identify a person’s core values. This process would include asking question within a certain context to elicit their beliefs, needs and core values. An example of how the team could achieve this is provided below. A further exercise is required to determine which of he values elicited, would be their most important values, in this context. On average, each person has 12 core values. The order or hierarchy of these values is dependent on the context. More than this, each person has their own criteria for their values. Your value of respect is different from mine. Even if we share the same value, there could still be dissonance, which wouldn’t necessarily be obvious based on the fact that we believe we share the same values. Our emotions are directly linked to our values and, as a result, we are deeply affected when our values are threatened. Our values form the basis of our beliefs and needs. All three are interrelated. Our beliefs and values drive our behaviours.

How does this all relate to a team or organisation? If a team can share the same values, and understand and share the criteria of each of their values, the importance of a mission or goal is far less.

Too often we hear that the team’s values are X, yet the members of the team, for reasons that they may not be able to express, feel dissonance. As mentioned above, if any of the team’s values contradict another team members’ values, the team member could feel that their values are threatened. This results in dissonance with the team member/s and the team/each other.

So, as coaches or Scrum Masters, what can we do about this? Firstly, we can help teams collaborate on defining a shared set of team values. In a large organisation, this may not be possible or in fact not even practical to get values that are congruent with everyone. The values of the organisation could be nice sounding words. For these values to inspire the people, they need to be congruent. As an example, you may believe that respect is a value that is important to you. This statement could be true but does it fulfil your needs and beliefs in this context. Firstly, what is your criteria of respect. Secondly, in terms of working at an organisation, is respect high on your hierarchy of core values. You might find that, for example, autonomy in the context of the organisation you work for is more important. If autonomy was not one of the values that the organisation finds important, then you might feel dissonance with the organisation’s values.

It can be more realistic to help individual teams come up with a list of shared values. Identifying a list of values that the individual teams find important, followed by an agreed list of criteria, is a good place to start.The only way to elicit a person’s core values would be to discuss needs and beliefs within a certain context and to ask questions around these beliefs and needs. Once a list of values has been elicited, the values would then need to be ranked in terms of importance. The team could achieve this but would require one on one discussion with each team member. An alternative would be to have a discussion with the team and try and get the teams believes and needs and try and uncover the values that drive those needs and beliefs. Following on from there, you can get each team member to provide their own criteria for each value. The defined criteria of each team members values, should hopefully paint a picture of which values criteria overlap. You may need to uncover a few more values if your are unable to find common criteria. Once you have done this, you should have a list of values that would be congruent with the members within the team.

Once you have a set of team values, compare how these align to the organisation’s values. Ensure that you have the criteria for the organisation’s values to compare against the teams. If they are mostly aligned, great, get ready to be awesome. If the values are not aligned, and causing dissonance for people in the team, try and work out a strategy of how the team members could maybe deal with this. Maybe they can find a value lower down in their hierarchy of values, which is more closely aligned. Finding values with similar criteria isn’t easy and requires collaboration between teams. The outcome however is worth the effort. Aligned values mean that visions and goals generated, are better supported and aligned to everyone in the organisation.

Values are precious to us, and we protect them. Values drive our emotions and, as a result, affect everything we do. Values, beliefs and needs are all related and together drive our behaviour. Having a team share common values is very powerful.

Agile thinking for process improvement by Angie Doyle

I have worked with Angie for a few years now. When I first worked with Angie, she was in the role of Business Process Analyst.  I was coaching the team that Angie was part of, in Agile. I met allot of resistance from other team members, but Angie seemed to take to Agile like a duck to water. Angie was instrumental in helping me change the mindset of the team, as far as working in an Agile way.

It just so happened that I ended up coaching a team at a new organisation which Angie had moved to. At this new organisation, Angie needed to  take on more of a Product Owner role. I watched as Angie grew into this role and in my opinion, is one of the best Product Owners I have worked with.

Angie recently wrote about Agile thinking for process improvement, which I really enjoyed reading. I have shared her post below.

We recently adopted two adult cats, which we named Hairy Potter and Picatso. While I was going through the motions of learning how to introduce adult cats to a new home, I stumbled across the following true story…

The massacre of Stephens Island

In February 1894, a pregnant cat escaped from the first inhabitants moving into the Stephens Island lighthouse (Stephens Island is located just off the northern tip of New Zealand’s South Island). A short time later the assistant lighthouse keeper, David Lyall, adopted one of the stray kittens, whom he called Tibbles. Tibbles soon started bringing gifts of affection to David — horrible little bugs, dead mice and the carcasses of small flightless birds found on the island. David had not seen the birds elsewhere in New Zealand and decided to preserve some of Tibbles’ quarry in alcohol. These specimens found their way to the New Zealand ornithological society, who subsequently declared the bird as a new, previously undiscovered wren.

However, within a year of being discovered, the Stephens Island Wren was extinct!

According to locals, it was due to the intrepid hunting efforts of one Tibbles the Cat. The reality is that the feral cat population had exploded during that year, and the favourite meal of choice for the young juveniles was a small flightless bird that acted more like a mouse than a bird. The wren had developed no natural defence mechanisms against possible predators, and – doing what it had always done – led to its ultimate undoing.

It got me thinking about a phrase I often hear: “But we have always done it that way”. Too often, we are so busy with “business as usual” that we forget to keep pace with our changing environment. Luckily, when it comes to optimising the work we do, we are light years ahead of where we were 20 years ago. Technologies are also much more accessible and intuitive, allowing us to rapidly build and implement solutions for our businesses.

We have everything we need to change the way we work. Fast. So how do we use Agile principles and values when embarking on a process improvement initiative?

Well first of all, we need to…

AgileThink big

We need a common, shared vision. What does success look like and how do we get there?

Understanding the perceived business value for embarking on the initiative is vital at this point. Now is the time to determine metrics that will help us identify when we have succeeded (or at least let us know if we are on the right path).

Start small

Don’t go for a big bang approach. Pick one process to start with. Ideally, that process should be:

  1. Highly visible; to keep the business interested in what needs to be done.
  2. Low risk; after all we will never know less about how to tackle this type of initiative than at this point. Give the process improvement team the opportunity to succeed. Riskier processes can come later.

The first initiative should also have a flexible deadline. The process improvement team needs the opportunity to experiment. Delivering in iterations and increments allows them, and the business, time to adapt.

Be quick

This is not the time to pursue perfection. Being perfect takes too long – and who decides what is perfect, anyway? Only the business can make that decision. Focus on releasing small components of the process that provide high value to the business and are immediately useful. The faster we release, the faster the returns on the investment! We are talking days or weeks – not months or years…

Essential reading on release planning: Jeff Paton’s 2005 article “It’s all in how you slice it”.

Rinse and repeat

Once we have managed to release a valuable and immediately useful increment to the business, it is time to monitor the impact using the metrics we determined earlier. When we stop delivering significant value to the business and we start gold plating, it is time to move on to the next process.

It is also time to inspect and adapt our behaviour to improve how we are working as a team. Ideally, this should happen every few weeks. If you using a specific Agile framework, for example Scrum, this will happen as part of your sprint retrospective. If you are using something like Kanban, it is still essential to have these discussions.

So, when do we stop this cycle of continuous improvement (for the business processes and within the team itself)?

Well, our competition is always improving and our environment is always changing. If we stop changing and adapting to new threats, we are taking a Stephens Island wren approach to a problem… which will lead to our ultimate undoing.

Dr Evil and Scrum – Treating estimates as deadlines

How often do we see teams estimating user stories, and in no time, the business commits these estimates to the client as delivery dates. We can expect this sort of behaviour from Dr Evil because, well he is Dr Evil, and he has Sharks with fricken layzzorrs.

Dr Evil


The Scrum Master is not only responsible for coaching the Scrum Team, but the business and other stake holders as well. A situation like this is an ideal opportunity for a Scrum Master to coach the business and the disfunction it brings.

We often spend most of our energy on coaching the Scrum Team. Managers, Project Managers and the rest of the business receive mush less attention. They hear everyone talking about this “Scrum” thing,  and know that team so and so are doing this magic Scrum stuff. Other than that, besides those close to the team, they don’t really understand the principles and practices of Scrum. No wonder their map of the world hasn’t changed. The Scrum Masters job is to help the Managers, Project Managers and the rest of the business understand the changes that the entire organisation is currently going through. What it means for the business and the customers, not just the direct teams affected.


Dealing with team conflict and problem solving – Drama Triangle Model

As a Team Coach or Scrum Master, conflict within a team is something we often have to deal with. Over the years I have come across a number of techniques that help resolve team conflict. Regardless of the technique you decide to use, its important to understand or try to see each individuals map of the world. Try to understand the position each team member is coming from, what state they are in, and how they interact with others based on the given scenario.

Drama TriangleThe drama triangle is a model that will assist you, the Team Coach or Scrum Master, understand how the team member is possibly dealing with the conflict within the team or any given scenario.

The drama triangle is a model developed by Stephen Karpman, in which a person takes on one of three habitual psychological roles within a particular situation. It is important to note that these roles occupy positions of behaviour and not statements of identity. Also important to note that one may perform one behaviour type in one context and quite another in a different context. Kordis and Lynch have transposed the model into the following symbolic roles. The three roles are:

The person who plays the role of a victim (The Carp)
The rescuer, who intervenes, seemingly out of a desire to help the situation, or the underdog (The Pseudo Enlightened Carp or P.E. Carp)
The person who pressures, coerces or persecutes the victim, plays the role of the persecutor (The Shark)

The Victim or the Carp
The victim experiences a sense of safety by submitting to others. In a threatening or conflict situation, the Carp will rather give in and avoid further conflict. The Carp believes that their views don’t count and have no value. The is another side to the Carp, they can manipulate a situation through anger, resentment and retaliation, so that they do not have to act as an adult or accept any responsibility. A Carp will often seek out a Shark so that they can fulfil their role of the victim.
“Without you, I am not ok”.

The Rescuer or the P.E. Carp
Of the three, the P.E. Carp is the least obvious role. The P.E. Carp does not play the role of a genuine rescuer in an emergency. What they really need is to maintain the status quo or to escalate the drama to continue to feel that they have value. Although they appear to have a strong motive for resolving the problem, their actual motive is not to succeed. They need to feel like they are depended on or trusted. They are the solution hero.
“I am not ok, you are not ok, that’s ok”.

The Persecutor or the Shark
The Shark believes that they are never the one at fault, and is quick to blame someone else. They love the power of manipulating and moving or pushing people around. They are your proverbial bully. They need to be right at all costs and will not back down, what-ever it whatever the consequences. They focus on getting their own way all the time, resulting in Sharks being easily fooled or losing sight of what the problem is. Their behaviour results in going over and over the same problem without resolving it or finding a solution.
“Without me, you are not ok”

It is often the case that a person will move from one role to another. Consider this scenario: “Why does this always happen to me? (Victim). It’s all your fault this happened(Persecutor). It’s ok, I am sure I will solve your problem (they actively disempower the other) (Rescuer). An individual may assume an alternative role depending on the group dynamic or circumstance. All three roles love drama and all three are victims with different masks.

During a conflict situation, it’s important to see which role is been played by whom. In some cases, it will be obvious which is the default role one particular person plays, which is helpful. Most times, however, people will move between roles.

It will take time for you to develop the skill to identify who is playing which role, and you might not always get it right in the beginning; that’s ok. Some people will be more transparent than others. For example, a persecutor who is passive aggressive will not show any of the expected behaviours, but under the surface they are a ticking time bomb. This isn’t helpful in the moment, but at some point, they will show their true colours. This may help in any future conflict as you will have a better understanding of the role this person may be playing. Watching their behaviour and listening to their language is key to identifying the role being played, and sometimes these behaviours can blur.

The role of the Team Coach or Scrum Master is to identify who is playing which role in the current situation. Knowing this can help anticipate the behaviours acted out by each role, and prevent people getting stuck. It is Important here to rather keep moving forward to finding a solution to the conflict or problem

DolphinIt’s only fair that if the other roles are metaphors of fish, that the Team Coach or Scrum Master has a fish metaphor as well. Introducing The Dolphin! Ok, so its not a fish, but it is a marine animal :).

The Dolphin has the ability to remain cantered and stay out of the drama. His attitude is to identify the behaviours played out by the participants and work to bring out the dolphin in all of them. He is creative, firm, solution oriented, he creates a space for others to manifest their brilliance. He is comfortable with conflict and sees it as an opportunity for constructive growth and as a platform to facilitate the system rising to a higher level of consciousness.

An exercise that you may want to consider, is to present the team with the Drama Triangle and get them to discuss, as a team or in small groups, the behaviours of each role. Ask if they have noticed these roles being played out. Give them some time to discuss and then ask them to think about which of the three roles they believe is their default. The objective is to try and get everyone to play the role of a Dolphin. By understanding and identifying these behaviours, they should be more self-aware. I would suggest that you only explore this exercise if you have developed a high level of safety and trust within the team.

The drama triangle is useful in many situations, from a family unit to an individual one. Keep an eye on how you respond in a stressful situation. While you are facilitating the resolution of a conflict situation or helping a team solve a problem, you are hopefully not emotionally involved and are therefore able to be the observer from a meta level. In a situation where you find yourself a player in a conflict situation, make a note of which role you seem to default to. The goal is to try and elevate the roles you play in these situations; to become a Dolphin in all situations, not only as a facilitator, but in your day to day life as well. Understanding and playing these roles, and being self-aware of when they change, allows you to have an idea of someone else’s map of the world, which gives you a better view point, to help you to guide.

Remember, a Dolphin always comes up for air, which removes him from the turbulent waters and allows him to keep an eye out on the horizon.

Original Drama Triangle model by Stephen Karpman (http://www.karpmandramatriangle.com/), Adapted by Sedrick Theodosiou – Inspiritu (http://www.inspiritu.co.za/)